Event debrief: ENDOWS communities stakeholders meeting 27th Oct 2017

Which communities and why?

How best do we connect a diverse range of publics and communities with research arising from the NERC Drought and Water Scarcity research programme? This was one of the themes discussed at the first Community Stakeholder workshop held at the University of the West of England, Bristol on 27th October 2017. Stakeholders represented a range of organisations interacting with public and community groups, from water companies and local government to wildlife trusts. Discussions highlighted the need to move beyond the ‘usual suspects’ in knowledge exchange and tackle those groups able to make water savings, but who have little recognition of the increasing risks of water scarcity in Britain. The need for sustained interaction with key intermediary groups and gatekeepers, as well as production of targeted and tailored materials for those with different prior levels of capital or interest also featured in the wide-ranging discussions. This group will form the basis for building a ‘community of practice’ developing and testing evidence that can be used in engaging publics/communities in drought risk decision-making.

Event debrief: ENDOWS business stakeholders meeting 31st Oct 2017

Business impacts of water scarcity

If your business didn’t have access to water or sufficient water quality, what would the impacts be? What are the priorities for businesses when it comes to information about drought and water scarcity? These were two of the themes discussed at a Business Stakeholder workshop held at the University of the West of England, Bristol, on Tuesday 31st October 2017. Stakeholders representing water companies, energy companies, and farmer-facing and public-service organisations attended to feed their views into the ENDOWS work programme. Discussions highlighted uncertainty about the future, and the need for earlier warning systems – for businesses to understand with greater lead time when water restrictions would occur (the later the warnings, the more expensive it becomes). Other workshop outcomes included:

  • The diversity of different types of business, water use and hence vulnerability to drought and water scarcity was acknowledged; it was also recognised that there will be opportunities for some businesses.
  • The need of some businesses for information to fill the ‘blind spot’ between weather forecasting (which becomes unreliable after 2 weeks), and seasonal forecasting (which is more reliable 3-4 months ahead), which would allow them to plan more effectively. There are also issues with the ability of current science skillsets to fill this gap.
  • There is a possibility to group, and communicate with, businesses via the type of water extraction they use primarily: groundwater, surface water flows, storage reservoirs.
  • It can seem counterintuitive or be publically unacceptable that water scarcity measures need to be implemented in winter (perhaps when it’s raining), when water stocks are at their lowest. There was a feeling that it was easier to communicate about drought when it felt intuitive to do so (during hot, dry weather), and so these opportunities need to be maximised pragmatically by businesses. It is also necessary to bust some myths regarding droughts only occurring in summer!
  • Much of the focus so far has been on the quantity of water resources, but there is now more attention being given by businesses to water quality – and also to the way low flows may impact on filtration systems via, for e.g., eutrophic blooms of certain organisms.
  • Trade-offs between using water for cooling systems, for example, and alternatives, must be balanced – as many alternative coolants may include harmful chemicals or require greater energy use.
  • Several in the group deemed it important to take account of the way information about water actually travels to consumers – often via intermediaries such as water retail companies or agronomists – rather than being conveyed directly from suppliers.

It was seen as essential not to create yet another selection of disaggregated tools, but to think about what integrated platforms the DWS outputs can build towards. One such example platform is the US government’s National Integrated Drought Information System, where visitors can drill down to find out more about drought in their region. Sharing data from locally collected sources on central, open platforms was seen as important, yet there are disincentives for businesses to cooperate, as it may put them at competitive disadvantage.

Workshop discussions also emphasised the need to make case studies and information relevant to specific business sectors, and a case for ‘knowing your own water data’ – i.e. encouraging scientific measurement within businesses, rather than this being outsourced and therefore distanced from the people with the greatest interest in the business.

Event debrief: MaRIUS LIVE! London, Nov 2017

MaRIUS LIVE! Managing the risks, impacts and uncertainties of droughts and water scarcity was held on the 2nd of November 2017.

Trevor Bishop, Director of Strategy and Planning at OFWAT, described MaRIUS as “one of the most important bits of research that we’ve seen in drought and water scarcity” as more than 80 delegates met to hear presentations setting out the findings of the project’s research and the outputs available for use.

still from event video available on YouTube

Trevor gave the opening address with Professor Jim Hall, Director of the Environmental Change Institute at Oxford University, PI of MaRIUS, summarising the project for audience members representing water and energy companies, regulators, consultancies and researchers.

The project researchers took the opportunity to outline their findings on the effect of drought on people and the environment, covering topics of governance, communities, drought management , hydrology, water quality and resources, aquatic and terrestrial ecology, agriculture, the economy and electricity supply.

Feedback from the half-day event has been very positive with the project’s datasets generating particular interest. Films will shortly be available from MaRIUS Live! One giving an overview and flavour of the event – including an interview with Trevor Bishop on the value of MaRIUS – and the others featuring the series of presentations. All links will be published here on AboutDrought and the MaRIUS website.

If you attended MaRIUS LIVE! But have not yet given your feedback, please complete the feedback form.

The post event delegate pack, including slide presentations and other materials, are now available. Links to Videos of the presentations are listed on this website.

For more news on MaRIUS visit the project website.

UK Hydrological Situation Update December 2017

Drought and Water Scarcity Programme researchers from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology and the British Geological Survey have published an overview of the current hydrological status of the UK.

The hydrological situation in November, showing river flows (left) and groundwater levels (right). ©NERC

Like a fish out of water: water scarcity, and even drought, can be surprisingly local

The notion that it always rains is a pillar of the British psyche, but does it really? Real droughts only occur in far-away lands, or do they? But the truth is that water scarcity can be both common and very localised, and even when very local it can still have significant impacts. The current situation in a part of the Wye catchment, illustrates this well.

2017 was a dry year. Figure 1a shows early spring and summer rainfall expressed relative to the average in the last 30 years. Brown patches (see the red circle) over Herefordshire point to particularly low rainfall in parts of the Wye river catchment in August and September 2017 (Figure 1b+c).  Taking the six months from April to September as a whole, shows a shortage of rainfall along this part of the English-Welsh border (Figure 1d). Figure 3 shows that October was also a very dry month for the whole country.

Does such a localised shortage of rainfall really matter? Probably not for most people; our reservoirs and water supply systems are designed to cope with periods of low rainfall, ensuring water reaches your tap. So unless you are a farmer dependent on rain, we are generally protected from shorter term water scarcity.

But what of the natural environment? Low rainfall can have a direct impact on river flows. The extent to which river flows are affected depends on the catchment (the geographical area from which water flows into a river system). It also depends on your local geology, and whether these rocks are able to store water. Some catchments, like chalk streams, are quite robust because water filters through the rock during period of high rainfall, is held there and is then released when it’s dry.

But the Wye is not a chalk stream and the geology in this area does not allow water to penetrate easily and be stored as groundwater. Instead, when it rains heavily in the Wye catchment, most of the water runs off, leaving the catchment. Without this groundwater supply, the Wye is vulnerable, even when the dry weather lasts only 6 months. Our river plants and animals are used to summer periods with naturally lower river flows, but they are not adapted to extended periods of low rainfall. Unlike countries where rivers dry up seasonally, our river wildlife have not evolved ways of surviving these harsh conditions.

So, if you are a fish in the Wye catchment, recent dry weather spells bad news. In fact so bad, that in some areas flow was so low that the river had separated into pools. In the River Dore near Peterchurch, Herefordshire, earlier this month (13 to 16 October) the Environment Agency had to rescue fish stranded in diminishing pools of water. On the 14th October, 47 trout, 24 lamprey and 8 eels were rescued and moved to safety by Environment Agency staff.  These problems have not just been limited to the Wye catchment. On the 16th October the Environment Agency’s Chris Bainger tweeted to draw attention to the fact that water levels on the River Teme at Ludlow in the adjacent Severn catchment, were so low that they were preventing the upstream migration of salmon.

Since then, we’ve had rain, so it’s all right now? Well, no. Recent rain has had little effect on water levels and fish rescues continue, with minnow recently removed from what remained of the Eign Brook in Hereford.

These examples highlight the severe impacts to fish and other wildlife that can occur during periods of localised water scarcity. Sustained dry weather can lead to complete loss of habitat as rivers break into pools that dry up. Important ecological functions such as salmon migration are also disrupted, as just one indicator of fragmentation of connected habitats upon which river life and natural processes depend. Climate change is likely to increase the frequency of these periods of low rainfall and what might seem a freak incident this year is likely to become a more regular occurrence in the next decades.

The Drought and Water Scarcity research programme, funded by UK Research Councils, is addressing these concerns. We would like to hear from you about the ways dry weather is affecting your river systems. If you have stories like the ones above, and would like to contribute your views or would just like to stay in touch with developments in the research programme, please contact the co-ordinator of the environment work stream, Associate Professor Nevil Quinn (nevil.quinn@uwe.ac.uk). Further information can be found elsewhere on this website, including more information about the Drought and Water Scarcity research programme.

Article authors: Nevil Quinn*, Emma Weitkamp*, Francois Edwards+ and Cédric Laizé+, 26 October 2017
* University of the West of England, Bristol  + Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford

Planning for drought in England

In England, water companies have plans that set out the actions they take before, during and after episodes of drought to ensure security of supply of water. The drought plans also describe how they will assess the effects on the environment and what they can do to mitigate any damage. The plans are revised regularly, every five years, following public consultation. Water companies are undertaking such a review at the moment. Current and draft plans are available on water company websites.

Water companies use knowledge of past droughts and potential future drought intensity combined with information about current conditions to guide them through a staged response to episodes of drought. Every few years drought severity is such that water companies expect to warn customers through radio, newspapers and social media that water resources are relatively low in their region and to use water sparingly. Less frequently, in anticipation of a more significant drought, water companies may introduce temporary use bans, popularly known as ‘hosepipe bans’. If a severe drought is anticipated, water companies can ask the Secretary of State for a Drought Order to ban nonessential use where more extensive restrictions apply. They may also apply to the Environment Agency for permits to take additional water from sources in their region. Under the most extreme conditions water companies may apply to the Secretary of State for additional powers, for example to apply rota cuts. However, water companies may never plan to reach this level since it would involve droughts worse than any on record.

The Environment Agency also has a drought plan, available on the gov.uk website, that, amongst other things, sets out how the Environment Agency monitors and measures the impacts of drought, and how it reports on the drought and communicates with others. All water companies, as well as the Environment Agency, see good communications with water users as vital to the successful management of water resources during a drought.

Links:

Environment Agency drought management for England
Map and list of water supply companies in England and Wales, including links to websites